My Favorite Software Books

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I’ve been using the parameterized data type Hashtable that was conveniently offered by the creators of Java, but you can define your own classes with parameters too. Creating your own parameterized classes is one of the more advanced topics, and I won’t be covering it in this book. The program failed on line 24 with java книги the error ClassCastException. The runtime errors are called exceptions in Java, and I’ll explain error handling in Chapter 10. But my main point is that this program has crashed during the runtime just because I ”forgot” that only the objects of type ContactDetail should be stored in the collection friends.

6. Project: Adding Events Handling For Calculator

In many code samples I’ve been using the keyword public in declaration of member variables and methods. This means that such a variable or a method can be accessed by any other code from the project. In the next java книги chapter I’ll explain how to control access levels in Java. The output of the CalculatorWithAnonymousClasses program will be the same as from Calculator. What did we achieve by re-writing calculator this way?

We’ll start learning about hiding and protecting data with the private access level. If a variable or a method are declared private, they can be used only within the class where they were declared. The next code sample represents the class Car and declares some of its members as private.

But if a variable has the type of a super class, it won’t see any members of the subclass. The next screen shot shows that the variable myOtherCar doesn’t see the method brake declared in the class Car.

Head First Java

In Chapter 4 you’ve gotten familiar with Java arrays, which have a limitation – you have to specify the number of array elements during the declaration of an array. But often you don’t know in advance how many elements there are. https://deveducation.com/blog/10-luchshih-knig-po-programmirovaniiu-na-java/ For example, if you want to write a program that would print all your followers in Twitter, their number may change many times a day. The class ArrayList can give you more flexibility – it can grow or shrink in size as needed.

Think of a list of something – a list of songs, a To-Do list, a list of friends names. Pretty java книги much any objects that can be used with the word list can be stored in an ArrayList.

  • From there, the book provides an in-depth explanation of the classical design patterns of creational, structural, and behavioral families, before heading into functional programming.
  • It then takes you through reactive and concurrent patterns, teaching you about using streams, threads, and coroutines to write better code along the way.
  • By the end of the book, you will be able to efficiently address common problems faced while developing applications and be comfortable working on scalable and maintainable projects of any size.

Then create a CSS file to add some cool styling to the calculator’s buttons. Save the CSS file in your IDEA project and modify the code of the Main class to java книги use your CSS file similarly to how it was done in the section ”Styling With CSS” above. Make your calculator look better than mine – it’s not too difficult.

Earlier in this chapter we’ve created the classes Dog, Parrot and the only difference between them was the implementation of the interface Talkative. But we can declare just one class with a method that can take the implementation of the Talkative in a form of lambda expression.

Data collection classes were written to be able to store instances of any objects. Java compiler can cast (convert) one data type to https://deveducation.com/ another as long they have inheritance relation. In particular, Java compiler can automatically cast the type to the class ancestors.

The method get extracts the element located at the specified position in the ArrayList. Since you can store any objects in this collection, the method get returns each element of the Object type. The program has to cast this object to a proper data type. We did not do it in the previous example only because we stored String objects in the collection friends, and Java knows how to convert an Object to a String automatically.

Note that I’ve created this class in the package vehicles. One of the main features of object-oriented languages is encapsulation – the ability to hide and protect data or code. This is not a protection from bad guys who are not allowed to see your code. For example, another programmer extended your class and is trying to change the value of a variable in your class, which may result in bug. I’d like to show you how lambda expressions can simplify your code by reducing the number of required classes.

Can’t we just always declare variables of the specific types? For example, JDK comes https://itstep.org/ with lots of other classes that were written to work with the Object data types.

In Java all classes are directly or indirectly inherited from the class Object, which is the root of the class hierarchy. In Figure 2 you’ve seen a class Car that has number of methods that we’ve never declared – they belong to the class Object, and the class Car extends Object even though we’ve never asked for it. So any of your application classes have an ancestor – Object.

java книги

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